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Glyco Resources, Labs, and Companies

This sub-forum is for learning about and discussing Glycobiology resources both online and in the physical world
1 0 3494

Consortium for Functional Glycomics

by R Bishop
May 28, 2008, 10:27 AM


This sub-forum is for discussing all things related to Glycobiology including removal of glycans, glycan structure, O-GlcNAc, N-glycans, O-glycans, and proteoglycans
28 70 33537

glycan analysis

by Pippuri
Oct 04, 2013, 18:41 PM

Society Overview

The Society for Glycobiology is a non-profit scholarly society devoted to the pursuit of knowledge of glycan structures and functions, and to the sharing of that knowledge among scientists worldwide.  For more information, please visit The Society for Glycobiology homepage.

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Glycobiology - current issue
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen are the major organic components of bone matrix. However, their roles and functional relationships remain elusive. To investigate the role of GAGs in bone matrix degradation, the effects of GAGs on collagen were examined under acidic conditions that recapitulate the microenvironment of osteoclast resorption pits. We found that sulfated GAGs protect collagen fibrils against acid denaturation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that collagen fibrils retain the fibril structure at pH 4.0 in the presence of chondroitin 6-sulfate. By surface plasmon resonance analysis, we found that sulfated GAGs, but not non-sulfated GAGs, bind to triple-helix type I collagen below pH 4.5. The binding of collagen in an acidic solution was dependent upon the GAG sugar chain length. Functionally, the acid-resistant collagen fibrils generated in the presence of sulfated GAGs were resistant to cathepsin K degradation in vitro below pH 4.0. As the pH increased from 4.0 to 5.0, the acid-resistant collagen fibrils were degraded by cathepsin K. Our results highlight the possibility that the interaction between GAGs and collagen under acidic conditions has a regulatory impact on cathepsin K-mediated bone degradation.
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, SOD3) protects tissues against oxidative damage by detoxifying superoxide anions, particularly in the lungs and cardiovascular system. EC-SOD undergoes several posttranslational modifications including N-glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage. While the roles of proteolytic cleavage have been well studied, the structure and function of EC-SOD N-glycans are poorly understood. Here we analyzed glycan structures on native EC-SOD purified from human sera, and identified sialylated biantennary structures. Using glycan maturation-defective CHO mutant cells, we further revealed that the presence of terminal sialic acids in the N-glycans of EC-SOD enhanced both the secretion and furin-mediated C-terminal cleavage of EC-SOD. These results provide new insights into how the posttranslational modifications of EC-SOD control its functions.
Auxin is critical for plant growth and development. The main natural auxin is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), whereas 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) is a synthetic form. Auxin-Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) specifically binds auxins, presumably playing roles as receptor in nontranscriptional cell responses. ABP1 structure was previously established from maize at 1.9 Å resolution. To gain further insight on ABP1 structural biology, this study was carried out employing molecular dynamics simulations of the complete models of the oligomeric glycosylated proteins from maize and Arabidopsis thaliana with or without auxins. In maize, both Zn2+ coordination and glycosylation promoted conformational stability and most of such stabilization effect was located on the N-terminal region. The α-helix of C-terminal regions in ABP1 of both species unfolded during simulations, assuming a more extended structure in maize. In Arabidopsis, the helix appeared more stable, being preserved in most of the monomeric simulations and unfolding when the protein was in the dimeric form. In Arabidopsis ABP1 bound to IAA or NAA, glycosylation structures arranged around the protein, covering the putative site of entrance or egress of auxin. NAA bound protein folding was more similar to the crystal structure showing higher stability compared to that of IAA bound. The molecular structural differences of ABP1 found between the species and auxin types indicate that this auxin-binding protein shows functional specificities in dicots and monocots, as well as in auxin type binding.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) encompasses all forms of chronic idiopathic arthritis that arise before age 16. Previous studies have found JIA to be associated with lower Fc galactosylation of circulating IgG, but the overall spectrum of glycan changes and the net impact on IgG function are unknown. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), we compared IgG glycosylation in 54 subjects with recent-onset untreated JIA with 98 healthy pediatric controls, paired to biophysical profiling of affinity for 20 IgG receptors using a high-throughput multiplexed microsphere assay. Patients with JIA exhibited an increase in hypogalactosylated and hyposialylated IgG glycans, but no change in fucosylation or bisection, together with alteration in the spectrum of IgG ligand binding. Supervised machine learning demonstrated a robust capacity to discriminate JIA subjects from controls using either glycosylation or binding data. The binding signature was driven predominantly by enhanced affinity for Fc receptor like protein 5 (FcRL5), a noncanonical Fc receptor expressed on B cells. Affinity for FcRL5 correlated inversely with galactosylation and sialylation, a relationship confirmed through enzymatic manipulation. These results demonstrate the capacity of combined structural and biophysical IgG phenotyping to define the overall functional impact of IgG glycan changes and implicate FcRL5 as a potential cellular sensor of IgG glycosylation.
Mannose-binding type Jacalin-related lectins (mJRLs) bind to branched N-glycans via conserved sugar-binding sites. Despite, significant 3D structural similarities, each mJRL is known to have a unique binding preference toward various N-glycans. However, the molecular basis of varying binding preference is substantially unknown. Here, we report a detailed comparison of N-glycan-binding preference for two mJRLs, Orysata and Calsepa using frontal affinity chromatography (FAC), X-ray and molecular modeling. The FAC analysis using a panel of N-glycans shows difference in N-glycan-binding preference between the lectins. Orysata shows broader specificity toward most high-mannose-type glycans as well as biantennary complex-type glycans bearing an extension on the Manα1–6 branch. Whereas, Calsepa shows narrow specificity to complex-type glycans with bisecting GlcNAc. The X-ray crystallographic structure reveals that two Orysata lectins bind to one biantennary N-glycan (2:1 binding) where one lectin binds to mannose of the α1–3 branch, while the other interacts with an N-acetylglucosamine of the α1–6 branch. In contrast, Calsepa shows 1:1 binding where α1–3 branch and core chitobiose region N-glycan interacts with lectin, while α1–6 branch is flipped-back to the chitobiose core. Molecular dynamics study of Orysata bound to N-glycans substantiate possibility of two-binding modes for each N-glycan. Binding free energies calculated separately for α1–3 and α1–6 branches of each N-glycan suggest both branches can bind to Orysata. Overall these results suggest that each branch of N-glycan has a distinct role in binding to mJRLs and the nonbinding branch can contribute significantly to the binding affinity and hence to the specificity.
Our understanding of muscle glycosylation to date has derived from studies in mouse models and a limited number of human lectin histochemistry studies. As various therapeutic approaches aimed at treating patients with muscular dystrophies are being translated from rodent models to human, it is critical to better understand human muscle glycosylation and relevant disease-specific differences between healthy and dystrophic muscle. Here, we report the first quantitative characterization of human muscle glycosylation, and identify differentiation- and disease-specific differences in human muscle glycosylation. Utilizing a panel of 13 lectins with varying glycan specificities, we surveyed lectin binding to primary and immortalized myoblasts and myotubes from healthy and dystrophic sources. Following differentiation of primary and immortalized healthy human muscle cells, we observed increased binding of Narcissus pseudonarcissus agglutinin (NPA), PNA, MAA-II and WFA to myotubes compared to myoblasts. Following differentiation of immortalized healthy and dystrophic human muscle cells, we observed disease-specific differences in binding of NPA, Jac and Tricosanthes japonica agglutinin-I (TJA-I) to differentiated myotubes. We also observed differentiation- and disease-specific differences in binding of NPA, Jac, PNA, TJA-I and WFA to glycoprotein receptors in muscle cells. Additionally, Jac, PNA and WFA precipitated functionally glycosylated α-DG, that bound laminin, while NPA and TJA-I did not. Lectin histochemistry of healthy and dystrophic human muscle sections identified disease-specific differences in binding of O-glycan and sialic acid-specific lectins between healthy and dystrophic muscle. These results indicate that specific and discrete changes in glycosylation occur following differentiation, and identify specific lectins as potential biomarkers sensitive to changes in healthy human muscle glycosylation.
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